Solo piano

Piano Piece 2

In memoriam Igor Stravinsky

Morena Tlake

Transcription of Michael Mosoeu Moerane
Published in: 


First performance: Thursday 13 February 2014, 13h10; Fismer Hall, University of Stellenbosch Konservatorium, Neethling Street, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Michael Blake pianoperformance details.

Programme note

Sotho composer Michael Mosoeu Moerane (1904-1981) must rank as one of the great South African composers of the 20th century. While living in the Eastern Cape, he completed his music degree through Unisa in the 1940s, studying composition with Austrian émigré Friedrich Hartmann, head of music at Rhodes. His symphonic tone poem Fatse la Hêso (My Country) received considerable attention in Britain and America, and of course very belatedly in South Africa, but his other instrumental music, including a set of piano pieces inspired by Schumann’s Kinderszenen and titled Sunny South, is not extant. He found his metier as a choral composer and conductor, and like many of his colleagues he may well have recycled these pieces as choral works, since they would have a much greater currency in that form. Bearing this in mind, I tried reversing the process in this transcription of Morena Tlake, originally for six-part choir but with material strongly suggesting instrumental origins.

Three Fragments from a Pilgrimage through Italy

  1. Gazing upon "The Ecstasy of Santa Teresa" (1'30")
  2. Discovering the Fountains of the Villa d'Este (1'00")
  3. Abstract Speed + Sound (1'15")
Dedicated to Willem Boshoff
Published in: 


First performance: Thursday 13 February 2014, 13h10; Fismer Hall, University of Stellenbosch Konservatorium, Neethling Street, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Michael Blake pianoperformance details.

Programme note

Fragments from an Italian Journey might have come from a miniature Lisztian excursion made in 2009, responding to the visual – Bernini’s classic sculpture in Rome, Giacomo Balla’s futurist painting in Venice, and - what was probably the most exciting discovery - the fountains of the Villa d’Este (the building now an exclusive hotel) flowing down rather than springing up, making Liszt’s illusion suddenly clear as spring water.

Si Lu Sapo Variations

Duration: c. 13'00"


First performance: Wednesday 24 July 2013, 16h00; Gentschefestspiele at Gentse Sommerfeesten, Ghent, Belgium; Michael Blake pianoperformance details.

Programme note

Reuben Caluza’s choral song Si Lu Sapo or iLand Act was composed in 1913 in response to the passing of the 'Land Act' by the British colonial government, restricting black ownership of land in the Cape. The apartheid government later extended this to the whole country and only since 1994 is land being returned to its rightful owners.

Si Lu Sapo Variations commemorates the centenary of the passing of this law. The variations are presented non-sequentially, with Caluza’s song heard only at the end, in its original harmonisation.

100 Voicings

For the John Cage centenary
Published in: 


First performance: Tuesday 4 September 2012; Stellenbosch, South Africa; Michael Blake pianoperformance details.

Programme note

100 Voicings was composed for the John Cage centenary concert I gave in the Fismer Hall, Stellenbosch on 4 September 2012 (the lone Cage centenary event in Africa). It consists of 100 revoicings of the four-note chord derived from the pitches of Cage's surname, though an inadvertent repetition resulted in 101.

Piano Sonata ('Choral')

  1. Agitated
  2. Strepitoso
  3. Misterioso
  4. Flowing
Dedicated to Daan Vandewalle
Commissioned by SAMRO Endowment for the National Arts
Bardic Edition Score BDE 1024
Duration: 30'00"


First performance: Sunday 20 July 2008; Gentse Feesten, Ghent, Belgium; Daan Vandewalle pianoperformance details.

Programme note

Two circumstances led to the composition of my first piano sonata. The more recent one was a request from Daan Vandewalle (who I first met in 2005 in Bratislava) to compose a virtuoso piano sonata for him of about 15 minutes duration. He had given me his remarkable CD recording of the Ives Concord Sonata and so I needed little convincing; I knew at once that this would be a long-awaited opportunity to pay homage to the Ives, a piece I first got to know more than thirty years ago.

The other circumstance went back further, to a lecture-recital I gave in Buenos Aires in 2001 (around 9/11). I wanted to present a programme of South African piano music spanning both the length of the country and the depth of the 20th century, but inevitably ran into problems seeking out repertoire by so-called black composers. That's when I hit on the idea of making some transcriptions of choral pieces for piano solo, specifically pieces by Michael Moerane ("Ruri") and Reuben Caluza ("Umantindane").

I always intended to make further transcriptions, and I remembered this when I was thinking about writing a piano sonata for Daan Vandewalle. Eventually I decided on a 'double' homage (two for the price of one): pianistically to the Concord, materially to the choral composers, and conceptually to both. I consider the Ives work to be one of the pillars, if not the pillar, of the 20th century piano repertoire. It continues to inspire composers, challenge performers and affect listeners.

I tried to forge a parallel between the monumentalism of the Ives work and the enormous breadth of the so-called African choral tradition and the composers themselves, especially those composers who lived and worked in the earlier 20th century. These were the pillars of the Southern African choral tradition, our Palestrinas, Lassos, Tallis's and Byrds.

Like Ives I wanted to have a four-movement structure, but ended up with three: two substantial outer movements, and a very short central movement, all quite unrelenting. The first movement pays homage to Michael Moerane and quotes his song Ruri ("Truly") somewhat obliquely, the second to Reuben Caluza, quoting distorted fragments of his ragtime song Umantindane ("Tokoloshe"), while the last is a homage - in his centenary year - to Joshua Mohapeloa and takes his song Senqu ("Orange River") as a theme for variation.

The first movement is permeated throughout by variants of the figure - a pair of chords - with which it opens, rhythmically varied and extended over the course of the movement, but with the pitches more or less unchanged. This material is intercut with passages of high or low bell sounds, a lyrical melody with a very jittery accompaniment, and so on. Both Moerane's Ruri and fragments of Ives's Concord Sonata are quoted and/or paraphrased.

The second movement takes two elements from Ives's Concord - extensive use of clusters and the quasi-'deconstruction' of ragtime - and applies these to Caluza's piece. The reminiscence of Nancarrow's set of so-called 'boogie-woogie' etudes for player piano (No 3) is deliberate, and the quotation here even extends to the first piece I wrote for Daan Vandewalle in 2004. Their souls go waltzing on paid homage to both Ives ("Three Page Sonata") and Schoenberg ("Five Piano Pieces Op 23"), a specific request from the 2004 edition of 'Evenings of New Music' in Bratislava - involving some 40 composers.

As far as we know Caluza and Ives never met, and I don't know if Caluza ever heard anything by Ives while he was studying in America at Hampton University, but I like to think of this movement as something of an imaginary exchange (or perhaps a collision) between the two men.

In 2009 I returned to the idea of a four-movement structure. There seemed to be a need for a slow, more reflective movement after the frenetic second and before the mammoth final movement. It was also an opportunity to reflect on the hymns of the Xhosa prophet Ntsikana and the works by Benjamin Tyamzashe and others that they inspired.

The last movement follows a very particular scenario, which grew out of two interesting circumstances. The first was becoming acquainted with Senqu, a piece of Mohapeloa's that I did not know. Particularly unusual was the rarely used 9/8 metre - rarely used in Southern African choral music that is. The second was a visit to his sparsely furnished, and sadly crumbling, former home in Morija. One of the few remaining items on his bookshelf was a vocal score of Lucia di Lammermoor. With Kagelian fervour I pressed these circumstances into service and contemplated the possibility that Mohapeloa might have attended opera performances during his period of study with Percival Kirby in Johannesburg during the late 1930s and early 1940s, with the possible result that he may well have become the great Southern African opera composer we have never had.

Senqu and other choral compositions by Mohapeloa intimate the possibilities of an operatic language and so in my third movement I used fragments of Senqu as scene-setting, and then having presented the theme, I composed an operatic fantasy on that theme. I worked backwards from the 21st to the 19th century, culminating in a paraphrase on Liszt's Reminiscences of Lucia di Lammermoor, with the accompaniment closely modelled on Liszt's.

At two structural points in the music I used, as a connective tissue, two further pieces of material - both with riverine connotations: Ives's setting of At the River and Rzewski's Ives-inspired Down by the Riverside (one of his "Four North American Ballads") based on the popular song of the same name. As a final tour-de-force I combined the theme of Senqu with the melody of At the River in a kind of Lisztian apotheosis, and left Liszt (the world of the late piano pieces now) and Busoni (his "Sonatina No 6: Fantasy on Carmen") to pose the final questions in the coda.

The Choral Sonata was commissioned by SAMRO Endowment for the National Arts for Daan Vandewalle to whom it is dedicated. He gave the first performance on 20 July 2008 at the Gentse Feesten in Belgium.

A Fractured Landscape (in memoriam Edward Said)

Duration: c. 7'00"


First performance: Monday 17 August 2009; The Firm, Adelaide, Australia; Antony Gray pianoperformance details.

Programme note

The death in 2003 of the philosopher and musician Edward Said, and the posthumous publication of his book On Late Style, led me to consider afresh the notion of so-called late style in music. I looked particularly at piano music -- late Beethoven, late Schubert, late Liszt and late Brahms -- and given Tony Gray's special affinity with Brahms' four late sets of Klavierstucke, I set about composing (what might be) the first of a series of reflective essays for the same medium.

Said talks too about 'lateness' in the writings of Adorno, who -- on the subject of late Beethoven -- wrote:

"his late works constitute a form of exile...the late works are relegated to the outer reaches of art, in the vicinity of document...the power of subjectivity in the late works of art is the irascible gesture with which it takes leave of the works themselves. It breaks their bonds, not in order to express itself, but in order, expressionless, to cast off the appearance of art. Of the works themselves it leaves only fragments behind, and communicates itself, like a cipher, only through the blank spaces from which it has disengaged itself...objective is the fractured landscape, subjective the light in which -- alone -- it glows into life. He does not bring about their harmonious synthesis. As the power of dissociation, he tears them apart in time, in order perhaps, to preserve them for the eternal. In the history of art, late works are the catastrophes." (Adorno "Essays on Music")

I composed A Fractured Landscape (in memoriam Edward Said) at Tony Gray's request for his concerts in Australia in August 2009. I started the piece in Hout Bay in June, wrote a good deal of it in London at Tony's piano, and finished it on tour in my hotel room in Pretoria on 21 July. It received its first performance in Adelaide on 17 August 2009.


South African Michael Blake’s A Fractured Landscape, in its first performance, underscored the tight, taut control this influential composer has previously shown. Angular, pulsing with energy and noisily exuberant at times, this challenging piece was approached by Gray in his cool, calm, objective manner that characterized all his performances, letting the music speak for itself and ensuring its voice was clear and unambiguous.
Rodney Smith, Adelaide Now, August 2009

Hob Fragments

Dedicated to Jill Richards
Written for the Haydn Anniversary
Published in: 
Duration: 2'30"


First performance: Tuesday 14 May 2013, 13h00; Fismer Hall, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Michael Blake pianoperformance details.

Programme note

Hob Fragments is something of a companion piece to BWV Fragments (1999), here a cut-and-paste of the last five piano sonatas by Haydn, written to mark the bicentenary of Haydn's death.

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